Study design

Learn more about how the pivotal clinical trial for VYVGART was set up to include a range of patients.

The ADAPT phase 3 clinical trial study design1,2

A 26-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 167 adult patients with gMG

The ADAPT phase 3 clinical trial study design
Adapt study design

The majority of patients (n=65 for VYVGART; n=64 for placebo) were positive for AChR antibodies.

*All patients received an initial cycle, with subsequent cycles administered based on individual clinical evaluation when their MG-ADL score was at least 5 (with >50% MG-ADL nonocular) and if the patient was an MG-ADL responder, when they no longer had a clinically meaningful decrease (defined as having a ≥2-point improvement in total MG-ADL score) compared to baseline. The minimum time between treatment cycles, specified by study protocol, was 4 weeks from the last infusion. A maximum of 3 cycles were possible in the 26-week study.

All patients received stable doses of their current gMG treatment.

The percentage of anti-AChR antibody positive patients who were MG-ADL responders, defined as a ≥2-point reduction in the total MG-ADL score compared to the treatment cycle baseline for at least 4 consecutive weeks during the first treatment cycle (by week 8), with the first reduction occurring no later than 1 week after the last infusion of the cycle.
AChR=acetylcholine receptor; gMG=generalized myasthenia gravis; MG-ADL=Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living; Tx=treatment.

BASELINE PATIENT DEMOGRAPHICS

The pivotal trial population represented a range of adult patients with gMG1-3

167

patients

Mean age: 46

Female: 75%

Anti-AChR antibody
positive: n=65/84

9

mean baseline
(MG-ADL score;
both arms)*

MG-ADL 5-7: 24%

MG-ADL 8-9: 37%

MG-ADL ≥10: 39%

(0=normal; 24=most severe)

16

mean baseline
(QMG score; both arms)

Range: 4-28 (overall)

(0=normal; 39=most severe)

MGFA class at screening

Class II (Mild): 40%

Class III (Moderate): 56%

Class IV (Severe): 4%

167

patients

Mean age: 48

Female: 66%

Anti-AChR antibody
positive: n=64/83

9

mean baseline
(MG-ADL score; both arms)*

MG-ADL 5-7: 27%

MG-ADL 8-9: 41%

MG-ADL ≧10: 33%

(0=normal; 24=most severe)

16

mean baseline
(QMG score; both arms)

Range: 4-28 (overall)

(0=normal; 39=most severe)

MGFA class at screening

Class II (Mild): 37%

Class III (Moderate): 59%

Class IV (Severe): 4%

Icon circle injection

Patients should be advised to complete age-appropriate vaccinations according to immunization guidelines prior to initiation of a new treatment cycle with VYVGART. Vaccination with live-attenuated or live vaccines is not recommended during treatment with VYVGART. No specific vaccinations were required in the ADAPT clinical trial inclusion criteria.

Icon circle hcp

gMG treatments at study entry (in each arm): NSISTs (~60%), steroids (>70%), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (>80%).

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5 most prevalent comorbidities identified at baseline (overall population): hypertension (28%), depression (13%), diabetes mellitus (10%), osteoporosis (9%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (9%).

Icon circle hand heart

Patients who had active hepatitis B, were seropositive for hepatitis C, were seropositive for HIV with low CD4 count, had severe infections, or had evidence of any significant serious malignant disease were not eligible to participate in the ADAPT trial.

*MG-ADL total score of ≥5 required at screening.

Sum of the percentages is over 100% due to rounding.

Conditions shown represent the 5 most prevalent comorbidities reported by investigator at baseline in the ADAPT clinical trial (N=167).
AChR=acetylcholine receptor; gMG=generalized myasthenia gravis; MG-ADL=Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living;
MGFA=Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America; NSIST=nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy; QMG=Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO are contraindicated in patients with serious hypersensitivity to efgartigimod alfa products or to any of the excipients of VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO, respectively. VYVGART HYTRULO is also contraindicated in patients with serious hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and hypotension leading to syncope.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Infection

VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO may increase the risk of infection. The most common infections observed in Study 1 were urinary tract infection (10% of efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients vs 5% of placebo-treated patients) and respiratory tract infection (33% of efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients vs 29% of placebo-treated patients). Patients on efgartigimod alfa-fcab vs placebo had below normal levels for white blood cell counts (12% vs 5%, respectively), lymphocyte counts (28% vs 19%, respectively), and neutrophil counts (13% vs 6%, respectively). The majority of infections and hematologic abnormalities were mild to moderate in severity. Delay the administration of VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO in patients with an active infection until the infection has resolved; monitor for clinical signs and symptoms of infections. If serious infection occurs, administer appropriate treatment and consider withholding treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO until the infection has resolved.

Immunization

Immunization with vaccines during treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO has not been studied; the safety with live or live-attenuated vaccines and the response to immunization with any vaccine are unknown. Because VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO cause a reduction in immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, vaccination with live-attenuated or live vaccines is not recommended during treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO. Evaluate the need to administer age-appropriate vaccines according to immunization guidelines before initiation of a new treatment cycle with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

In clinical trials, hypersensitivity reactions, including rash, angioedema, and dyspnea were observed in patients treated with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO. Urticaria was also observed in patients treated with VYVGART HYTRULO. Hypersensitivity reactions were mild or moderate, occurred within 1 hour to 3 weeks of administration, and did not lead to treatment discontinuation. Anaphylaxis and hypotension leading to syncope have been reported in postmarketing experience with intravenous efgartigimod alfa-fcab. Anaphylaxis and hypotension occurred during or within an hour of administration and led to infusion discontinuation and in some cases to permanent treatment discontinuation. Healthcare professionals should monitor patients during and for 1 hour after VYVGART administration, or for at least 30 minutes after VYVGART HYTRULO administration, for clinical signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the healthcare professional should institute appropriate measures if needed or the patient should seek medical attention.

Infusion-Related Reactions

Infusion-related reactions have been reported with intravenous efgartigimod alfa-fcab in postmarketing experience. The most frequent symptoms and signs were hypertension, chills, shivering, and thoracic, abdominal, and back pain. Infusion-related reactions occurred during or within an hour of administration and led to infusion discontinuation. If a severe infusion-related reaction occurs during administration, discontinue VYVGART infusion and initiate appropriate therapy. If a severe infusion-related reaction occurs with VYVGART HYTRULO, initiate appropriate therapy. Consider the risks and benefits of readministering VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO following a severe infusion-related reaction. If a mild to moderate infusion-related reaction occurs, patients may be rechallenged with close clinical observation, slower infusion rates, and pre-medications.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In Study 1, the most common (≥10%) adverse reactions in efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients were respiratory tract infection, headache, and urinary tract infection. In Study 2, the most common (≥10%) adverse reactions in VYVGART HYTRULO-treated patients were injection site reactions and headache. Injection site reactions occurred in 38% of VYVGART HYTRULO-treated patients, including injection site rash, erythema, pruritus, bruising, pain, and urticaria. In Study 2 and its open-label extension, all injection site reactions were mild to moderate in severity and did not lead to treatment discontinuation. The majority occurred within 24 hours after administration and resolved spontaneously. Most injection site reactions occurred during the first treatment cycle, and the incidence decreased with each subsequent cycle.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy

As VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO are expected to reduce maternal IgG antibody levels, reduction in passive protection to the newborn is anticipated. Risks and benefits should be considered prior to administering live or live attenuated vaccines to infants exposed to VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO in utero.

Lactation

There is no information regarding the presence of efgartigimod alfa-fcab from administration of VYVGART, or efgartigimod alfa or hyaluronidase from administration of VYVGART HYTRULO, in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO, and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO or from the underlying maternal condition.

INDICATION

VYVGART® (efgartigimod alfa-fcab) for intravenous infusion and VYVGART® HYTRULO (efgartigimod alfa and hyaluronidase-qvfc) for subcutaneous injection are each indicated for the treatment of generalized myasthenia gravis in adult patients who are anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive.

Please see the full Prescribing Information for VYVGART and the full Prescribing Information for VYVGART HYTRULO.

You may report side effects to the US Food and Drug Administration by visiting http://www.fda.gov/medwatch or calling 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects to argenx US, Inc, at 1-833-argx411 (1-833-274-9411).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO are contraindicated in patients with serious hypersensitivity to efgartigimod alfa products or to any of the excipients of VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO, respectively. VYVGART HYTRULO is also contraindicated in patients with serious hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and hypotension leading to syncope.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Infection

VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO may increase the risk of infection. The most common infections observed in Study 1 were urinary tract infection (10% of efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients vs 5% of placebo-treated patients) and respiratory tract infection (33% of efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients vs 29% of placebo-treated patients). Patients on efgartigimod alfa-fcab vs placebo had below normal levels for white blood cell counts (12% vs 5%, respectively), lymphocyte counts (28% vs 19%, respectively), and neutrophil counts (13% vs 6%, respectively). The majority of infections and hematologic abnormalities were mild to moderate in severity. Delay the administration of VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO in patients with an active infection until the infection has resolved; monitor for clinical signs and symptoms of infections. If serious infection occurs, administer appropriate treatment and consider withholding treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO until the infection has resolved.

Immunization

Immunization with vaccines during treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO has not been studied; the safety with live or live-attenuated vaccines and the response to immunization with any vaccine are unknown. Because VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO cause a reduction in immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, vaccination with live-attenuated or live vaccines is not recommended during treatment with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO. Evaluate the need to administer age-appropriate vaccines according to immunization guidelines before initiation of a new treatment cycle with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

In clinical trials, hypersensitivity reactions, including rash, angioedema, and dyspnea were observed in patients treated with VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO. Urticaria was also observed in patients treated with VYVGART HYTRULO. Hypersensitivity reactions were mild or moderate, occurred within 1 hour to 3 weeks of administration, and did not lead to treatment discontinuation. Anaphylaxis and hypotension leading to syncope have been reported in postmarketing experience with intravenous efgartigimod alfa-fcab. Anaphylaxis and hypotension occurred during or within an hour of administration and led to infusion discontinuation and in some cases to permanent treatment discontinuation. Healthcare professionals should monitor patients during and for 1 hour after VYVGART administration, or for at least 30 minutes after VYVGART HYTRULO administration, for clinical signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the healthcare professional should institute appropriate measures if needed or the patient should seek medical attention.

Infusion-Related Reactions

Infusion-related reactions have been reported with intravenous efgartigimod alfa-fcab in postmarketing experience. The most frequent symptoms and signs were hypertension, chills, shivering, and thoracic, abdominal, and back pain. Infusion-related reactions occurred during or within an hour of administration and led to infusion discontinuation. If a severe infusion-related reaction occurs during administration, discontinue VYVGART infusion and initiate appropriate therapy. If a severe infusion-related reaction occurs with VYVGART HYTRULO, initiate appropriate therapy. Consider the risks and benefits of readministering VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO following a severe infusion-related reaction. If a mild to moderate infusion-related reaction occurs, patients may be rechallenged with close clinical observation, slower infusion rates, and pre-medications.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In Study 1, the most common (≥10%) adverse reactions in efgartigimod alfa-fcab-treated patients were respiratory tract infection, headache, and urinary tract infection. In Study 2, the most common (≥10%) adverse reactions in VYVGART HYTRULO-treated patients were injection site reactions and headache. Injection site reactions occurred in 38% of VYVGART HYTRULO-treated patients, including injection site rash, erythema, pruritus, bruising, pain, and urticaria. In Study 2 and its open-label extension, all injection site reactions were mild to moderate in severity and did not lead to treatment discontinuation. The majority occurred within 24 hours after administration and resolved spontaneously. Most injection site reactions occurred during the first treatment cycle, and the incidence decreased with each subsequent cycle.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy

As VYVGART and VYVGART HYTRULO are expected to reduce maternal IgG antibody levels, reduction in passive protection to the newborn is anticipated. Risks and benefits should be considered prior to administering live or live attenuated vaccines to infants exposed to VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO in utero.

Lactation

There is no information regarding the presence of efgartigimod alfa-fcab from administration of VYVGART, or efgartigimod alfa or hyaluronidase from administration of VYVGART HYTRULO, in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO, and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from VYVGART or VYVGART HYTRULO or from the underlying maternal condition.

INDICATION

VYVGART® (efgartigimod alfa-fcab) for intravenous infusion and VYVGART® HYTRULO (efgartigimod alfa and hyaluronidase-qvfc) for subcutaneous injection are each indicated for the treatment of generalized myasthenia gravis in adult patients who are anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive.

Please see the full Prescribing Information for VYVGART and the full Prescribing Information for VYVGART HYTRULO.

You may report side effects to the US Food and Drug Administration by visiting http://www.fda.gov/medwatch or calling 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects to argenx US, Inc, at 1-833-argx411 (1-833-274-9411).

References: 1. VYVGART. Prescribing information. argenx US Inc; 2024. 2. Howard JF Jr et al. Lancet Neurol. 2021;20(7):526-536. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00159-9 3. Data on file, argenx US Inc. December 2023.